Gearbox Technique

Gearbox Technique

On this site, we want to explain you how a gearbox works and why it sometimes “hooks up”. Basically, a gear is a transmission that down-regulates the rotation speed of the wheel. Thereby, the power increases that brings the drive on the street. In principle, the first gearbox is the antique lifting block. In China, corresponding gear drives already existed 3500 years ago.!


The Multitronic is an automatic transmission that was developed as a Joint-Venture between the gearbox manufacturer LuK and the Volkswagen-Audi-group. The special feature of this gearbox is the fact that it is stepless and there ideal to drive economically. Essentially, you can imagine it like a cassette at a bicycle transmission. Only with a cone flange pair, meaning “endless pinions” on the drive and motor site. The distance between the bevel gear wheels varies and a link-plate chain can automatically find the ideal transmission. The traction is navigated electronically by an associated coupling. And therefor it often hooks, because if the firmware makes trouble, problems are preprogrammed, for example when reversing into a parking space. A children’s disease for which we have the right solution.

1. How does an automatic transmission work?

An automatic transmission (also called automatic gearbox, self-shifting gearbox or A/T) is a type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually. Like other transmission systems on vehicles, it allows an internal combustion engine, best suited to run at a relatively high rotational speed, to provide a range of speed and torque outputs necessary for vehicular travel.The most popular form found in automobiles is the hydraulic automatic transmission. Similar but larger devices are also used for heavy-duty commercial and industrial vehicles and equipment. This system uses a fluid coupling in place of a friction clutch, and accomplishes gear changes by locking and unlocking a system of planetary gears. These systems have a defined set of gear ranges, often with a parking pawl that locks the output shaft of the transmission to keep the vehicle from rolling either forward or backward. Some machines with limited speed ranges or fixed engine speeds, such as some forklifts and lawn mowers, only use a torque converter to provide a variable gearing of the engine to the wheels.

Automatic Transmission
Trucks and buses: There are clutch pedals, one chooses a gear, for example fifth gear, and the control electronics decides if it is really shifted or not. At modern models, the clutch pedal is missing. Here you can preselect the gear and then it is decided whether this gear is chosen or not.
Automatic gearboxes are comfortable and easy to construct, therefore also the maintenance is relatively uncomplicated. The more so as many mechanical component parts are the same as in a classical gearbox. This reduces the procurement costs for us, if we need to exchange something.
For example, the gear shift in Smart is serially manual, assisted by an electronic motor. By a firmware change of the controlling, this actual manual gearbox becomes an automatic gearbox.

Torque converter automatic transmission
Torque converter automatic transmissions work hydraulic when starting, that is why the start is practically wear-free. The traction is carried out of the interaction between the common construction parts and a liquid that is under pressure – one part of the coupling is the pump wheel, the other one is the turbine. Those circuits have a relatively high loss of power caused by a kind of “hydraulic damping“ which is not the case in modern gearboxes: Compensate this work. The speed adjustment is realized by a dashpot so that the automatic switching proceeds smoothly. Previously, purely “mechanic“ which means hydraulically controlled, automatics were used. Nowadays, an electronic control is used. But this is not everything. The computerization found it’s way into gearboxes, above all in the controlling of the gearbox pressure in automatic gearboxes. The involved pumps depend on a corresponding software and updates partially provide an improvement of the driving behavior.
The handling of automatic gearboxes is relatively easy and standardized, because therefore in a series of countries there exist exact specifications. The central tunnel, where the gear shift can be moved from top down and back, has several steps:
1. P-Step (parking step, therefore the gearbox is blocked due to roll off)
2. R-Step (reverse gear)
3. N-Step (neutral, engine idle)
4. D-Step (Drive, meaning driving with flexible translation levels, according to the driving situation)

Now and then, automatic gearboxes deviate slightly from that. There may be a “D1“ and “D2“-gear. Or “M1“ and “M2“ for the manual area code of a maximal transmission.
2. In a manual transmission, there are two waves: one is driven by the motor that drives the other shaft (s). On each shaft sit differently sized gears, the pairs fit together. Depending on which gear is currently engaged, interlocking other gear pairs. Are the driving axles with the "coupling" in an idle "shut down" so that the gears can engage without load. With exaggerated dynamic driving style and regular "stalling" or "Tuck transition" these gears are subjected to extreme loads, making the transmission in the long run a full end.
Here we come gearing professionals on the scene: If the engine is the heart of the car, the gearbox is the aorta. And in this metaphor we are the specialists, resuscitating the organism. Without any gear drive.
If your clutch or hooked the car completed regular capers when starting, we are your partners! We make sure that their beloved wheeled Pedestal that makes again what you want! Do not hesitate to call us!

Today's most widespread Gearbox is the "H-circuit".
The courses are here arranged in the form of an "H", five or six forward gears and the lower left or right with a separate pressure point (such as a child safety in medication vials) a reverse gear. This particular pressure point is therefore now standard, so you do not suddenly switched into reverse while playing a drive. During the subsequent engagement it would trigger enormous forces that destroy the gear. When you start the car, and pushed through the clutch, the transmission is in neutral, ie None of the gear wheels is connected to the motor. Now insert a transition, and leave "the clutch come", the motor is connected to the transmission, so that now the forces are transmitted. If now the clutch - for example when parking - can constantly grind, the durability that very gear groups involved is also not beneficial, because every now and then the transmission is connected to the engine, then not again, then partially ... Most bevelled gear groups unilaterally loaded, resulting in the long run to wear. Incidentally, the reverse also has its own shift shaft.

The sequential gearbox The sequential gearbox for example, there is still the smart. Here one can not, as in the H-circuit, reaching all the gears freely, but has slowly up- and downshifting from one into the other passage. What does "synchronized transmission"?
Nowadays, gears are "synchronized" usually. When switching to the drive shaft and motor shaft "in sync" made so that the gear change takes place as possible without jerking and without much sudden forces. This is achieved for example, by interposing a "brake", the material creates friction between the gears involved in a gang, it decelerates and therefore each equalize before they are really engaged completely together. This makes the gear change softly and gently transmission. It was different. Who is sometimes driven vintage, determines knows the crash and "howl" when switching from sliding gear driven.

Sliding gear transmission?
Here the gears are almost always straight and without synchronization. The sync, so it does not howling and crashing, came through experience of the driver. You had to get a feel for the speed when changing gear. You stepped on the gas, and turned high, we slowed, and turned down.
And here it came to the cliché of the poor "woman behind the wheel - danger and adventure":
The husbands of the stuffy 50s and 60s left their women never to rarely driving, even if they had a driver's license. Therefore they could not gather the experience that "soft, gentle" to change gear would have been necessary. As a result, most women off with crashing gears and engines roaring, because they had not at all been taught differently. They simply had too little driving experience, because the men suppressed this. Then made a woman by the lack of practice corresponding switching error, was dismissed as the "typical woman at the wheel". Luckily this time is past smelly. By the way: the Schieberadgetriebe your classic car is with us in good hands! Call us! .
3. Differential gear

Differential gear same running differences from between the inner and outer wheel. The better you work, the less the tires squeal in curves and more less rubber remains on the road. Differential gear look complicated, but the principle is shockingly easy. To help you close the principle of this drive technology bring, we have linked you to this point, an American teaching video from the 30s. We know so far no one to the functional principle so clearly   can explain how these brilliant filmmakers 75 years ago ...
And even if you are not proficient of English: The pictures speak for themselves:

4. Dual clutch transmission

A particularly modern form of the automatic transmission is the dual clutch transmission. The idea is: that two gears share one housing, and in complement also super. The gearshifts without interruption of traction, so the car will during shifting in no idle: Open the coupling of a partial transmission, closes the other. This makes the dual-clutch transmission very efficient.
DSG (Direct Shift Gearbox) is the name of this type, as they used to come in Volkswagen. Meanwhile, Volkswagen offers this gear as a ten-turn version in order to sell more cars in hot areas of the world: The more programs are available, the greater can be the translation of the first gear select. This avoids damage to the transmission due to overheated components in the clutch that increases occurred in the past in Southeast Asia and the tropics. And like so much else in automotive technology also applies here: the manufacturer learn from errors that are reported back to them through specialist workshops like us.
PDK (Porsche Double-Clutch) is the brand name of the version that uses the sports car manufacturer since the 80s. Porsche began in 1969 with the theoretically since 1939 in France and 1940 in Germany, invented model of this transmission first researches. The first Porsche transmission of this type was the Type 919, but disappeared because too rough in the switching behavior.

Dual clutch transmission be operated like any other automatic transmission.